By Clifford J. Studman

ISBN-10: 0409604690

ISBN-13: 9780409604696

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In this case. 4 b. 20b). 20(b) Calculation of distance and RL (Vertical angles nnore than 1 0 ° ) . 565 m The distance calculation is unaffected. c. 13 where Q is the reduced level of the instrument telescope, and where Η is positive for elevated angles, and negative for depressed angles. The actual staff reading V is always subtracted. Example a. 403 m and A = + 8° 3 2 ' 45 and the stadia constant k = 100 for the instrument. 082 m. 042. 082 which it does. 80 m. 12 ELECTRONIC DISTANCE MEASUREMENT AND ELECTRONIC TOTAL STATIONS It is quite clear from the preceeding sections that the use of a theodolite for distance and angle measurement involves several readings and lengthy calculations.

However this is rather tedious. d. It is essential to fill in the remarks column with clear details which specify the point being measured. It is often difficult to remember what individual sightings were for, the more so as the time interval between fieldwork and plotting the results increases. adjustments are available elsewhere (eg, Wilson, 1977). Once set the instrument should not need further adjustment in the field. 2 Setting the theodolite up Normally, the theodolite must be set up exactly over a fixed position, which is marked out in the field by a suitable peg.

1 9 Stadia lines viewed through telescope of level. 042. Where Μ is the number of full protractor circles, and Ν is the number of times the measurement is repeated. Instruments with stadia capabilities also normally have a 360° circle, mounted so that angles between readings may be measured. This enables the results of field observations to be plotted as each set of readings will give a distance and a bearing. It is important to remember that in surveying a full 360 ° circle is used and that the numbers always run clockwise.

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Agricultural and Horticultural Engineering. Principles, Models, Systems and Techniques by Clifford J. Studman


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