By Isamu Nouchi (auth.), Kenji Omasa Ph.D., Hiharu Saji Ph.D., Shohab Youssefian Ph.D., Noriaki Kondo Ph.D. (eds.)

ISBN-10: 4431683887

ISBN-13: 9784431683889

ISBN-10: 4431683909

ISBN-13: 9784431683902

Air toxins is ubiquitous in industrialized societies, inflicting a number of environmental difficulties. it's hence necessary to computer screen and decrease toxins degrees. a couple of plant species already are being exploited as detectors (for phytomonitoring) and as scavengers (for phytoremediation) of air pollution. With advances in biotechnology, it really is now possible to change crops for a much broader variety of phytomonitoring and phytoremediation purposes. pollution and Plant Biotechnology provides fresh ends up in this box, together with plant responses in the course of phytomonitoring, pollution-resistant plant species, imaging prognosis of plant responses, and using novel transgenic crops, besides stories of simple plant body structure and biochemistry the place acceptable. Researchers and scholars operating in plant biotechnology and the environmental sciences or contemplating new components of research will locate this quantity a worthwhile reference.

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Additional info for Air Pollution and Plant Biotechnology: Prospects for Phytomonitoring and Phytoremediation

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Elsevier, London, pp 473-504 Alscher RG, Bower JI, Zipfel W (1987) The basis for different sensitivities of photosynthesis to S02 in two cultivars of pea. J Exp Bot 38:99-108 Alscher RG, Wellburn AR (1994) Plant responses to the gaseous environment. Chapman & HaIl, London Asada K (1980) Formation and scavenging of superoxide in chloroplasts with relation to injury by sulfur oxides. In: National Institute of Environmental Studies (ed) Studies on the effects of air pollutants on plants and mechanisms of phytotoxicity.

A loss in Rubisco may also play an important role in the acceleration of premature senescence as Rubisco is a major leaf protein (Pell et al. 1994). Ozone was also found to reduce mRNA levels of both the smalI (rbcS) and large (rbcL) subunits of Rubisco which, in turn, lowered Rubisco levels within the chloroplast (PelI et aJ. 1994), and thus reduced the rate of CO 2 fixation and productivity. The reductions in mRNA levels of both rbcS and rbcL mean loss in transcription. , inhibited or activated), leading to a disruption of normal carbohydrate metabolism in chloroplasts.

It was assumed that PAN directly and strongly attacks lipids of the chloroplast thylakoid membranes, leading to the abrupt collapse of membrane structures and ultimate death of the cells. In addition, Nouchi (1988) examined the participation of active oxygen, which may be formed either directly by decomposition of PAN in solution or indirectly by biochemical processes in cells during the process of PAN injury. In this study, various active oxygen scavengers were exogenously applied to leaf disks that were previously exposed to PAN.

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Air Pollution and Plant Biotechnology: Prospects for Phytomonitoring and Phytoremediation by Isamu Nouchi (auth.), Kenji Omasa Ph.D., Hiharu Saji Ph.D., Shohab Youssefian Ph.D., Noriaki Kondo Ph.D. (eds.)

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