By K Attenborough; V I Tokarev; Oleksandr Zaporozhets
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Extra info for Aircraft noise propagation, exposure & reduction : assessment , prediciton and control
Noise is associated with several negative feelings: annoyance, disturbance, bother and intrusion. In discussing noise annoyance, Langdon28 considers the noise itself, its source, meaning, perception and the degree of interference as external factors. Except at higher sound levels, increases in annoyance are not always related to increases in sound, but some degree of relatedness remains. Where sound pressure levels vary quite substantially and rapidly, such as during a low-level jet aircraft pass by, one might also want to consider the rate of change of sound pressure levels (the onset rate, for example).
A2 = 1 + δ1 (M)a21 (x, τ ) + . . , (0) (1) vi = vi (x, τ ) + δ1 (M)vi . . , where for M →0, the variables x, τ are ﬁxed. 34) δ2 (M) = M4 ; σ2 = ∂ 2 σ1 ∂τ 2 − ∂ 2 ∂σ1 ∂2 (1) (0) (0) (1) (0) (0) vi vj + vi vj + σ1 vi vj − 2 a . 35) where integration has been performed on the volume of turbulent ﬂow V(ξ ), and over bounding surfaces S = S1 + S0 + S∞ (Fig. 15a): S1 is the surface on the nozzle to a distance on the order of typical sound wavelength, S0 is determined by the jet nozzle surface, S∞ is the part of the surface sufﬁciently far from jet exit and separation surface.
For aircraft noise impact assessment, in addition to choosing the relevant aircraft noise index, it is necessary to consider aircraft noise source descriptions, the ﬂight procedures, details of population affected by noise and the airport staff and passengers’ reaction to aircraft noise. Important roles are played by the requirements of health norms, ﬂight safety, economic efﬁciency of aircraft operation and maintenance. Aircraft noise annoyance is determined by several factors including the intensity, frequency content, duration and repetition, individual noise sensitivity and time of the day.
Aircraft noise propagation, exposure & reduction : assessment , prediciton and control by K Attenborough; V I Tokarev; Oleksandr Zaporozhets
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