By Norman J. G. Pounds
The significant subject of this publication is the altering spatial trend of human actions over the past 2,500 years of Europe's historical past. Professor kilos argues that 3 components have decided the destinations of human actions: the surroundings, the attitudes and sorts of social association of the numerous assorted peoples of Europe and finally, the degrees of know-how. in the huge framework of the interrelationships of surroundings, society and know-how, a number of vital subject matters pursued from the 5th century BC to the early 20th century: cost and agriculture, the expansion of towns, the advance of producing and the position of exchange. Underlying every one of those issues are the discussions of political association and inhabitants. even supposing the publication relies partly of Professor Pound's magisterial 3 volumes An ancient Geography of Europe (1977, 1980, 1985), it was once written in particular for college kids and readers attracted to a common survey of the topic.
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Additional resources for An Historical Geography of Europe (Soviet and East European Studies, 79)
The only area in Europe that could possibly have equaled the density found in the Aegean lands was Magna Graecia, and Syracuse was the only city that could have rivaled Athens. Yet the size of the towns and the probable extent of their cultivated area suggest that the total population could not have been more than half a million. 5 million. When we turn to the rest of Italy the evidence is found to be even less abundant. On the basis of its cemetery, which has been excavated, the population of one Etruscan city-state, Caere (Cerveteri), has been put at about 25,000, and that of the urban population of Eturia at 200,000.
It usually lay on rising ground for protection. It was commonly walled, and within the fortifications were the closely packed homes of its citizens. Not that all citizens of zpolis lived within its urban central-place. Many had their homes in the surrounding rural areas where they had their farms. " 2 They had to, or the journey from their homes to their fields would have been far too great. The Athenianpolis covered about 1,000 square miles, and Sparta almost 3,000. But the vast majority were a great deal smaller than this.
To some extent this vast enclosure derived from the need, especially in earlier times, to have space into which to drive animals in time of emergency. As the city grew it commonly spread out over lower and flatter ground, and most of the last cities to be founded were built on flat land beside a river which provided them with water. The older, hilltop towns were wholly without regular plan. Streets were narrow and twisting, with alleys and courts opening off them. " 4 This has been confirmed by excavations carried out near the Areopagus: "a minor street and narrow alleys.
An Historical Geography of Europe (Soviet and East European Studies, 79) by Norman J. G. Pounds
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